External combustion engines dominated powertrain design until the introduction of the inexpensive Ford Model T, which at one time accounted for ½ of all automobile production globally. Although the external combustion engine had more power, was quieter, and had very low emissions, the internal production engine could be produced for about 1/10 the price. Fuel economy and air pollution were considered unimportant. With the Model T dominating the marketplace, other manufacturers adapted the internal combustion powertrain as well, so that by 1928 the external combustion engine was no longer produced for vehicles.

However, external combustion engines today produce more power globally than all internal combustion engines combined. It is logical therefore that the inherent clean combustion and high power advantages of external combustion support related research for cars and trucks, especially in view of high fuel prices and pandemic air pollution. Although billions of dollars have been spent on fuel cells, electric and hybrid powertrains, none have the range and power of a conventional engine, so none are a universal replacement. Despite considerable hype, and government subsidy, there is nothing to indicate that either electric or fuel cells will overcome the  barriers of high cost and low power. Similarly, combining electric with internal combustion does little more than harness the inherent deficiencies of that engine.

Conversely, the ZED engine is designed as a “drop-in” replacement of the conventional engine in a conventional vehicle, delivering equal power, higher efficiency and much lower emissions.

For the consumer, they can enjoy the type of vehicle that they want, such as a Chevrolet Corvette, Ford Focus, Dodge Viper, Mercedes sedan, Toyota Corolla, or Mini. Consumers can continue to choose any vehicle they want because ZED engines have the power to pull a trailer, carry a large family, go off-road, provide performance driving, or any other use.

The second benefit to a consumer is that ZED powered vehicles cost no more in the showroom because the cost of engine production is the same or less. In comparison the Chevrolet Volt is calculated to have a payback to the owner in fuel savings after 10.5 years of operation. Interestingly, the average vehicle life in the USA is 8 years before its scrapped. ZED powered vehicles cost no more to purchase, and fuel savings are realized immediately

With a calculated increase in average fuel efficiency of 50%, a ZED engine is expected to save the average consumer approximately 25-30%  a year in fuel costs. In addition, the ZED engine service life is expected to exceed 250,000 miles as opposed to 100,000 for conventional engines. As a footnote, a number of original 1920s Doble external combustion vehicles have exceeded 1,000,000 miles without an engine repair or rebuild. With modern metallurgy, design and machining capability, ZED engines are expected to run longer with less maintenance, which reduces the cost of ownership.

Quick, stress free refueling is equally important to a vehicle owner, a requirement not met by fuel cell or electric vehicles. A ZED engine powered vehicle can burn any liquid or gaseous fuel, either individually or randomly blended because it can attain ideal stoich (fuel/air mixture) under all operating conditions. This capability precludes the need for various octanes, additives and refining required for current powertrains. ZED executives believe that the use of ZED engines will reduce refinery costs by 5-10%.

In respect to safety, the ZED engine is made of iron, steel, aluminum and plastic components, all common, inert materials. In contrast, electric cars contain highly toxic Lithium, and the potential for electrocution of the vehicle occupants from over 7,000 volts of on-board electricity in an accident, or submersion in water. Spontaneous electric vehicle fires are also a known risk. Unknown to most purchasers, electrical vehicles do not have to meet the same level of safety standards as conventional vehicles.

Consumers support green technology in their purchase decision, and the use of ZED engines is expected to substantially reduce air pollution. An average passenger vehicle produces 5.2 metric tons of Carbon Dioxide per year. Given 250 million cars in the USA, that equals 1 Billion 300 million (1,300,000,000) Metric Tons per year. Given 800 million cars globally, that equals 4 billion 160 million (4,160,000,000) Metric Tons per year.The average ZED engine is expected to reduce carbon pollution to less than half of current engines. In high air pollution areas such as Mexico City, Beijing, or Los Angeles the effect can literally be lifesaving.

In summary, ZED engine technology costs no more than conventional engines, which overcomes the greatest hurtle to consumer adaptation. Consumers can also drive their current vehicle, spent less to service and fuel it, and it will last longer. No other green tech engine solution has combined the attributes of external engine design and heat engine designs to so fully satisfy consumer needs.